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for $1,050, sold to Lewis G. Brown of Nueces County, Texas, the tract in the San Patricio Land District. /s/ Peter Hardeman by J. B. Hardeman, attorney in fact.1497
    Peter Hardeman, his wife, and children moved to Brazil in 1869. They left New Orleans and arrived in Rio de Janeiro on 18 June 1869. Another ship took them to Santos, a train delivered them to Jundiai, and they made the last leg of the trip to their new home near Santa Barbara on foot or by carriage. They imported a sawmill which came by ship from New Orleans in 1869. There were several large colonies of Confederates in the area, and before long Santa Barbara was more often called Americana, the name it bears today.
    Peter joined the Confederate Cavalry and became captain of Company A of the Second Regiment of Texas Mounted Rifles, surving under Colonel John Robert Baylor in the New Mexico campaign. He was promoted to colonel of the Fourth Texas Cavalry and transferred to the command of the Arizona Brigade and later, Hardeman’s Texas Battalion in the western border region.
    Fontaine Pitts of Tennessee, a missionary, had moved to Brazil in 1835. He established an outpost on the Amazon River. Brazillans were actively recruiting immigrants from North America during that period, and after the Civil War a group of disillusioned Southerners joined Pitts’s son, Joseph, in a successful colony called Santarem.
    Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II, who unofficially had favored the Confederacy and had a special liking for Southerners, wanted permanent settlers who could teach his subjects how to grow cotton, then the country’s staple crop. As an inducement the emperor subsidized the passage money and temporary accommodations to many in the emigration societies.
    War weary Rebels like the Hardemans had always believed there was a heaven for Southerners somewhere, and the spectacular welcome that his Majesty staged for them in Rio must have convinced them they had finally arrived. Dom Pedro met them personally and with large crowds who shouted “Long live the Confederados” while the bands played Dixie.

    1497 Nueces County, Texas, Deed Book I, p. 276-279. Deed Book K, p. 116-117. Proved before F. Ohlenburger, deputy clerk of District Court of Colorado County, Texas, 20 July 1870, Columbus, Texas. Recorded 4 August 1872.